On this page you can find links to Pubmed and to Google Scholar, where most of my publications can be found. There is also a link to list of interviews. A full list of publications is displayed below.


Lohmann A, Astivia OLO, Morris TP, Groenwold RHH.
It's time! Ten reasons to start replicating simulation.
Front. Epidemiol., 14 September 2022. doi.org/10.3389/fepid.2022.973470

Jansen MS, Dekkers OM, Groenwold RHH, Siegerink B.
Publication rates in small German trials remained low five years after trial completion.
Contemp Clin Trials. 2022 Aug 26:106899. doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2022.106899

Hoepelman RJ, Beeres FJP, Beks RB, Sweet AAR, Ijpma FF, Lansink KWW, van Wageningen B, Tromp TN, Link BC, van Veelen NM, Hoogendoorn JM, de Jong MB, van Baal MCP, Leenen LPH, Groenwold RHH, Houwert RM.
Non-operative vs. operative treatment for multiple rib fractures after blunt thoracic trauma: a multicenter prospective cohort study.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2022 Aug 25. doi.org/10.1007/s00068-022-02093-9

Nab, L, Groenwold, RHH, Klok, FA, Bhoelan, S, Kruip, MJH, Cannegieter, SC.
Estimating incidence of venous thromboembolism in COVID-19: Methodological considerations.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost. 2022; 6:e12776. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rth2.12776

Biersteker TE, Boogers MJ, Schalij MJ, Penning de Vries BBL, Groenwold RHH, van Alem AP, de Weger A, van Hof N, Treskes RW.
Mobile health vs. standard care after cardiac surgery: results of The Box 2.0 study.
Europace. 2022 Aug 11:euac115. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euac115

Hempenius MM, Rijken SS, Groenwold RHHR, Hek KK, de Boer AT, Klungel OHO, Gardarsdottir HH.
Primary nonadherence to drugs prescribed by general practitioners: A Dutch database study.
Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2022 Jul 27. https://doi.org/10.1111/bcp.15472

van der Endt VHW, Milders J, Penning de Vries BBL, Trines SA, Groenwold RHH, Dekkers OM, Trevisan M, Carrero JJ, van Diepen M, Dekker FW, de Jong Y.
Comprehensive comparison of stroke risk score performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis among 6 267 728 patients with atrial fibrillation.

Europace. 2022 Jul 27:euac096. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euac096

Luijken K, van de Wall BJM, Hooft L, Leenen LPH, Houwert RM, Groenwold RHH; on behalf of the NEXT Study Group.
How to assess applicability and methodological quality of comparative studies of operative interventions in orthopedic trauma surgery.

Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2022 Jul 9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00068-022-02031-9

Hoepelman RJ, Ochen Y, Beeres FJP, Frima H, Sommer C, Michelitsch C, Babst R, Buenter IR, van der Velde D, Verleisdonk EMM, Groenwold RHH, Houwert RM, van Heijl M.
Let's Agree to Disagree on Operative versus Nonoperative (LADON) treatment for proximal humerus fractures: Study protocol for an international multicenter prospective cohort study.

PLoS One. 2022 Feb 25;17(2):e0264477. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0264477

Laurijssen SJ, van der Graaf R, van Dijk WB, Schuit E, Groenwold RH, Grobbee DE, de Vries MC.
When is it impractical to ask informed consent? A systematic review.
Clin Trials. 2022 Jul 1:17407745221103567. https://doi.org/10.1177/17407745221103567

Palin V, Van Staa TP, Steels S, Troxel AB, Groenwold RHH, MacDonald TM, Torgerson D, Faries D, Mancini P, Ouwens M, Frith LJ, Tsirtsonis K, MacLennan G, Nordon C; GetReal Initiative.
A first step towards best practice recommendations for the design and statistical analyses of pragmatic clinical trials: a modified Delphi approach.
Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2022 Jun 14. https://doi.org/10.1111/bcp.15441

Leahy TP, Kent S, Sammon C, Groenwold RHH, Grieve R, Ramagopalan S, Gomes M.
Unmeasured confounding in nonrandomized studies: quantitative bias analysis in health technology assessment.
J Comp Effect Res. Published Online:9 Jun 2022; https://doi.org/10.2217/cer-2022-0029

Leahy TP, Duffield S, Kent S, Sammon C, Tzelis D, Ray J, Groenwold RHH, Gomes M, Ramagopalan S, Grieve R.
Application of quantitative bias analysis for unmeasured confounding in cost–effectiveness modelling.
J Comp Effect Res. Published Online:9 Jun 2022, https://doi.org/10.2217/cer-2022-0030

Luijken K, Groenwold RHH, van Smeden M, Strohmaier S, Heinze G.
A comparison of full model specification and backward elimination of potential confounders when estimating marginal and conditional causal effects on binary outcomes from observational data.
Biom J. 2022 May 12. https://doi.org/10.1002/bimj.202100237

Rottier WC, Pinholt M, van der Bij AK, Arpi M, Blank SN, Nabuurs-Franssen MH, Ruijs GJHM, Tersmette M, Ossewaarde JM, Groenwold RH, Westh H, Bonten MJM; Dutch VRE Bacteremia Investigators; Danish Collaborative Bacteraemia Network (DACOBAN).
Attributable mortality of vancomycin resistance in ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium bacteremia in Denmark and the Netherlands: A matched cohort study.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2022 Jun;43(6):719-727. https://doi.org/10.1017/ice.2021.216

Luijken K, Dekkers OM, Rosendaal FR, Groenwold RHH.
Exploratory analyses in aetiologic research and considerations for assessment of credibility: mini-review of literature.
BMJ. 2022 May 3;377:e070113. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj-2021-070113

Monahan RC, Middelkoop HA, Beaart-van de Voorde LJ, Fronczek R, Groenwold RH, Kloppenburg M, Huizinga TW, Steup-Beekman GM.
High prevalence but low impact of cognitive dysfunction on quality of life in patients with lupus and neuropsychiatric symptoms.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2022 Apr 26. https://doi.org/10.1002/acr.24904

Luijken K, Song J, Groenwold RHH.
Quantitative prediction error analysis to investigate predictive performance under predictor measurement heterogeneity at model implementation.
Diagn Progn Res. 2022 Apr 7;6(1):7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41512-022-00121-1


Eikenboom AM, Le Cessie S, Waernbaum I, Groenwold RHH, de Boer MGJ.
Quality of Conduct and Reporting of Propensity Score Methods in Studies Investigating the Effectiveness of Antimicrobial Therapy.
Open Forum Infect Dis. 2022 Mar 7;9(4):ofac110. https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofac110


van Laar SA, Gombert-Handoko KB, Groenwold RHH, van der Hulle T, Visser LE, Houtsma D, Guchelaar HJ, Zwaveling J.
Real-World Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Treatment Patterns and Clinical Outcomes in The Netherlands.
Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2022;13. https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fphar.2022.803935

Bots SH, Groenwold RHH, Dekkers OM.
Using electronic health record data for clinical research: a quick guide.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2022 Feb 1:EJE-21-1088. https://doi.org/10.1530/EJE-21-1088

Groenwold RHH, Heerdink ER, Klungel OH.
Challenges in the Design, Registration, and Reporting of Noninferiority Trials.
JAMA Psychiatry. Published online January 26, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2021.3932

Penning de Vries BBL, Groenwold RHH.
Identification of causal effects in case-control studies.
BMC Med Res Methodol. 2022 Jan 7;22(1):7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12874-021-01484-7

Ravensbergen WM, Blom JW, Kingston A, Robinson L, Kerse N, Teh RO, Groenwold RHH, Gussekloo J; TULIPS consortium.
Declining daily functioning as a prelude to a hip fracture in older persons-an individual patient data meta-analysis.
Age Ageing. 2022 Jan 6;51(1):afab253. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afab253

Boone SC, van Smeden M, Rosendaal FR, le Cessie S, Groenwold RHH, Jukema JW, van Dijk KW, Lamb HJ, Greenland P, Neeland IJ, Allison MA, Criqui MH, Budoff MJ, Lind LL, Kullberg J, Ahlström H, Mook-Kanamori DO, de Mutsert R.
Evaluation of the Value of Waist Circumference and Metabolomics in the Estimation of Visceral Adipose Tissue.
Am J Epidemiol. 2022 Jan 6:kwab298. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwab298

Wang Y, Pera V, Boezen HM, Alffenaar JC, Wilffert B, Groenwold RHH, Hak E.
Real-World Effects of Antibiotic Treatment on Acute COPD Exacerbations in Outpatients: A Cohort Study under the PharmLines Initiative.
Respiration. 2022 Jan 3:1-12. https://doi.org/10.1159/000520884

Penning de Vries BBL, Groenwold RHH.
Bias of time-varying exposure effects due to time-varying covariate measurement strategies.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2022 Jan;31(1):22-27. https://doi.org/10.1002/pds.5328

van de Wall BJM, Baumgärtner R, Houwert RM, Link BC, Heng M, Knobe M, Groenwold RHH, Babst R, Beeres FJP.
MIPO versus nailing for humeral shaft fractures: a meta-analysis and systematic review of randomised clinical trials and observational studies.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2022 Feb;48(1):47-59. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00068-020-01585-w

Peek J, Beks RB, Hietbrink F, De Jong MB, Heng M, Beeres FJP, IJpma FFA, Leenen LPH, Groenwold RHH, Houwert RM.
Epidemiology and outcome of rib fractures: a nationwide study in the Netherlands.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2022 Feb;48(1):265-271. https://doi/org/10.1007/s00068-020-01412-2


Vriesendorp MD, Groenwold RHH, Herrmann HC, Head SJ, De Lind Van Wijngaarden RAF, Vriesendorp PA, Kappetein AP, Klautz RJM.
The Clinical Implications of Body Surface Area as a Poor Proxy for Cardiac Output.
Structural Heart 2021;5(6):582-587. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748706.2021.1968089

Groenwold RHH.
Grand Challenge—Crossing Borders to Develop Epidemiologic Methods.
Frontiers in Epidemiology. 2021(1) https://doi.org/10.3389/fepid.2021.786988

Schuijt HJ, Smeeing DPJ, Groenwold RHH, van der Velde D, Weaver MJ.
External validation of the U-HIP prediction model for in-hospital mortality in geriatric hip fracture patients.
Injury. 2021 Dec 23:S0020-1383(21)01040-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2021.12.028

Nab L, Groenwold RHH.
Sensitivity analysis for random measurement error using regression calibration and simulation-extrapolation.
Global Epidemiology 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloepi.2021.100067

Nawijn F, de Gier B, Brandwagt DAH, Groenwold RHH, Keizer J, Hietbrink F.
Incidence and mortality of necrotizing fasciitis in The Netherlands: the impact of group A Streptococcus.
BMC Infect Dis. 2021 Dec 6;21(1):1217. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06928-5

Ochen Y, Guss D, Houwert RM, Smith JT, DiGiovanni CW, Groenwold RHH, Heng M.
Validation of PROMIS Physical Function for Evaluating Outcome After Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture.
Orthop J Sports Med. 2021 Oct 18;9(10):23259671211022686. https://doi.org/10.1177/23259671211022686

Kist JM, Smit GWG, Mairuhu ATA, Struijs JN, Vos RC, van Peet PG, Vos HMM, Beishuizen ED, Sijpkens YWJ, Groenwold RHH, Numans ME.
Large health disparities in cardiovascular death in men and women, by ethnicity and socioeconomic status in an urban based population cohort.
EClinicalMedicine. 2021 Aug 29;40:101120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.101120

Gal R, Monninkhof EM, van Gils CH, Groenwold RHH, Elias SG, van den Bongard DHJG, Peeters PHM, Verkooijen HM, May AM.
Effects of exercise in breast cancer patients: implications of the trials within cohorts (TwiCs) design in the UMBRELLA Fit trial.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2021 Aug 24. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10549-021-06363-9

Hempenius M, Groenwold RHH, de Boer A, Klungel OH, Gardarsdottir H.
Drug exposure misclassification in pharmacoepidemiology: sources and relative impact.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2021 Aug 15. https://doi.org/10.1002/pds.5346

Cornelissen LL, Caram-Deelder C, Fustolo-Gunnink SF, Groenwold RHH, Stanworth SJ, Zwaginga JJ, van der Bom JG.
Expected individual benefit of prophylactic platelet transfusions in hemato-oncology patients based on bleeding risks.
Transfusion. 2021 Jul 15. https://doi.org/10.1111/trf.16587

Beeres FJP, van Veelen N, Houwert RM, Link BC, Heng M, Knobe M, Groenwold RHH, Babst R, van de Wall BJM.
Open plate fixation versus nailing for humeral shaft fractures: a meta-analysis and systematic review of randomised clinical trials and observational studies.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2021 Jul 5. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00068-021-01728-7

Nab L, van Smeden M, Keogh RH, Groenwold RHH.
mecor: An R package for measurement error correction in linear regression models with a continuous outcome.
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2021.106238

Kroes SK, Janssen MP, Groenwold RH, van Leeuwen M.
Evaluating privacy of individuals in medical data.
Health Informatics J. 2021 Apr-Jun;27(2):1460458220983398. https://doi.org/10.1177/1460458220983398

Luijken K, Spekreijse JJ, van Smeden M, Gardarsdottir H, Groenwold RHH.
New-user and prevalent-user designs and the definition of study time origin in pharmacoepidemiology: a review of reporting practices.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2021 Apr 26. Online ahead of print. https://doi.org/10.1002/pds.5258

Penning de Vries BB, van Smeden M, Groenwold RH.
A weighting method for simultaneous adjustment for confounding and joint exposure-outcome misclassifications.
Stat Methods Med Res. 2021 Feb;30(2):473-487. https://doi.org/10.1177/0962280220960172

Nab L, van Smeden M, de Mutsert R, Rosendaal FR, Groenwold RHH.
Sampling Strategies for Internal Validation Samples for Exposure Measurement Error Correction: a Study of Visceral Adipose Tissue Measures Replaced by Waist Circumference Measures.
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Apr 20:kwab114. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwab114

le Cessie S, Groenwold RHH, Dekkers OM.
Correlation or regression, that's the question.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2021 Apr 1:EJE-21-0251. https://doi.org/10.1530/EJE-21-0251

Groenwold RHH.
Trial Emulation and Real-World Evidence.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(3):e213845. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.3845

Groenwold RHH, Palmer TM, Tilling K.
To Adjust or Not to Adjust? When a 'Confounder' Is Only Measured After Exposure.
Epidemiology 2021;32(2):194-201.

Groenwold RHH, Goeman JJ, Cessie SL, Dekkers OM.
Multiple testing: when is many too much? Eur J Endocrinol.
2021 Mar;184(3):E11-E14.

Dekkers OM, Groenwold RHH.
When observational studies can give wrong answers: the potential of immortal time bias.
Eur J Endocrinol 2021;184(1):E1-E4.

Hempenius M, Groenwold RHH, Souverein PC, de Boer A, Klungel OH, Gardarsdottir H.
Impact of anticoagulant exposure misclassification on the bleeding risk of direct oral anticoagulants.
Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Feb 5.

Sweet AAR, Beks RB, de Jong MB, van Baal MCP, Ijpma FFA, Hietbrink F, Beeres FJP, Leenen LPH, Groenwold RHH, Houwert RM.
Is a chest radiograph indicated after chest tube removal in trauma patients? A systematic review.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021 Feb 16.


Groenwold RHH.
Informative missingness in electronic health record systems: the curse of knowing.
Diagn Progn Res 2020 Jul 2;4:8.

Groenwold RHH, Dekkers OM.
Missing data: the impact of what is not there.
Eur J Endocrinol 2020 Oct;183(4):E7-E9.

Groenwold RHH.
Commentary: Quantifying the unknown unknowns.
Int J Epidemiol 2020;49(5):1503-1505.

Groenwold RHH, Dekkers OM.
Measurement error in clinical research, yes it matters.
Eur J Endocrinol 2020;183(3):E3-E5.

Groenwold RHH, Dekkers OM.
METHODOLOGY FOR THE ENDOCRINOLOGIST: Basic aspects of confounding adjustment.
Eur J Endocrinol 2020;182(5):E5-E7.

van Smeden M, Penning de Vries BBL, Nab L, Groenwold RHH.
Approaches to addressing missing values, measurement error, and confounding in epidemiologic studies.
J Clin Epidemiol 2020;131:89-100.

Dekkers OM, Groenwold RHH.
Study design: what's in a name?
Eur J Endocrinol. 2020;183(6):E11-E13.

Penning de Vries BBL, van Smeden M, Rosendaal FR, Groenwold RHH.
Title, abstract, and keyword searching resulted in poor recovery of articles in systematic reviews of epidemiologic practice.
J Clin Epidemiol 2020;121:55-61.

van Smeden M, Lash TL, Groenwold RHH.
Reflection on modern methods: five myths about measurement error in epidemiological research.
Int J Epidemiol 2020;49(1):338-347.

Luijken K, Wynants L, van Smeden M, Van Calster B, Steyerberg EW, Groenwold RHH; Collaborators.
Changing predictor measurement procedures affected the performance of prediction models in clinical examples.
J Clin Epidemiol 2020;119:7-18.

Yoder W, Groenendaal F, Onland W, van Oploo A, Rietbergen C, Groenwold R.
Sequential co-enrolment in randomised trials in neonatal intensive care medicine.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2020;105(2):128-131.

Boulesteix AL, Groenwold RH, Abrahamowicz M, Binder H, Briel M, Hornung R, Morris TP, Rahnenführer J, Sauerbrei W; STRATOS Simulation Panel; Simulation Panel.
Introduction to statistical simulations in health research.
BMJ Open 2020;10(12):e039921.

Nab L, Groenwold RHH, van Smeden M, Keogh RH.
Quantitative Bias Analysis for a Misclassified Confounder: A Comparison Between Marginal Structural Models and Conditional Models for Point Treatments.
Epidemiology 2020;31(6):796-805.

van Smeden M, Groenwold RHH, Moons KG.
A cautionary note on the use of the missing indicator method for handling missing data in prediction research.
J Clin Epidemiol 2020;125:188-190.

Aydemirli MD, Kapiteijn E, Ferrier KRM, Ottevanger PB, Links TP, van der Horst-Schrivers ANA, Broekman KE, Groenwold RHH, Zwaveling J.
Effectiveness and toxicity of lenvatinib in refractory thyroid cancer: Dutch real-life data.
Eur J Endocrinol 2020;182(2):131-138.

van de Wall BJM, Ochen Y, Beeres FJP, Babst R, Link BC, Heng M, van der Velde D, Knobe M, Groenwold RHH, Houwert MR.
Conservative vs operative treatment for humeral shaft fractures: a meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized clinical trials and observational studies.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020;29(7):1493-1504.

Peek J, Beks RB, Hietbrink F, Heng M, De Jong MB, Beeres FJP, Leenen LPH, Groenwold RHH, Houwert RM.
Complications and outcome after rib fracture fixation: A systematic review.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2020;89(2):411-418.

Zonneveld TP, Aigner A, Groenwold RHH, Algra A, Nederkoorn PJ, Grittner U, Kruyt ND, Siegerink B.
Confounding adjustment performance of ordinal analysis methods in stroke studies.
PLoS One 2020;15(4):e0231670.

Biersteker TE, Boogers MJ, de Lind van Wijngaarden RA, Groenwold RH, Trines SA, van Alem AP, Kirchhof CJ, van Hof N, Klautz RJ, Schalij MJ, Treskes RW.
Use of Smart Technology for the Early Diagnosis of Complications After Cardiac Surgery: The Box 2.0 Study Protocol.
JMIR Res Protoc JMIR Res Protoc 2020;9(4):e16326.

Ochen Y, Peek J, van der Velde D, Beeres FJP, van Heijl M, Groenwold RHH, Houwert RM, Heng M.
Operative vs Nonoperative Treatment of Distal Radius Fractures in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
JAMA Netw Open 2020;3(4):e203497.

Smeeing DPJ, Houwert RM, Briet JP, Groenwold RHH, Lansink KWW, Leenen LPH, van der Zwaal P, Hoogendoorn JM, van Heijl M, Verleisdonk EJ, Segers MJM, Hietbrink F.
Weight-bearing or non-weight-bearing after surgical treatment of ankle fractures: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 2020;46(1):121-130.

Hempenius M, Luijken K, de Boer A, Klungel O, Groenwold R, Gardarsdottir H.
Quality of reporting of drug exposure in pharmacoepidemiological studies.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2020;29(9):1141-1150.

van Geloven N, Swanson SA, Ramspek CL, Luijken K, van Diepen M, Morris TP, Groenwold RHH, van Houwelingen HC, Putter H, le Cessie S.
Prediction meets causal inference: the role of treatment in clinical prediction models.
Eur J Epidemiol 2020;35(7):619-630.

Althunian TA, de Boer A, Groenwold RHH, Rengerink KO, Souverein PC, Klungel OH.
Rivaroxaban was found to be noninferior to warfarin in routine clinical care: A retrospective noninferiority cohort replication study.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2020;29(10):1263-1272.

Peek J, Ochen Y, Saillant N, Groenwold RHH, Leenen LPH, Uribe-Leitz T, Houwert RM, Heng M.
Traumatic rib fractures: a marker of severe injury. A nationwide study using the National Trauma Data Bank.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open 2020;5(1):e000441.

Althunian TA, de Boer A, Mantel-Teeuwisse AK, Groenwold RHH, Gispen-de Wied CC, Leufkens HGM, Klungel OH.
Assessment of the Regulatory Dialogue Between Pharmaceutical Companies and the European Medicines Agency on the Choice of Noninferiority Margins.
Clin Ther 2020;42(8):1588-1594.

van Breugel JMM, Niemeyer MJS, Houwert RM, Groenwold RHH, Leenen LPH, van Wessem KJP.
Global changes in mortality rates in polytrauma patients admitted to the ICU-a systematic review.
World J Emerg Surg 2020;15(1):55.

Beeres FJ, Diwersi N, Houwert MR, Link BC, Heng M, Knobe M, Groenwold RH, Frima H, Babst R, Jm van de Wall B.
ORIF versus MIPO for humeral shaft fractures: a meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized clinical trials and observational studies.
Injury 2020:S0020-1383(20)30939-6.

van Dijk WB, Fiolet ATL, Schuit E, Sammani A, Groenhof TKJ, van der Graaf R, de Vries MC, Alings M, Schaap J, Asselbergs FW, Grobbee DE, Groenwold RHH, Mosterd A.
Text-mining in electronic healthcare records can be used as efficient tool for screening and data collection in cardiovascular trials: a multicenter validation study.
J Clin Epidemiol 2020;132:97-105.

Pajouheshnia R, Schuster NA, Groenwold RH, Rutten FH, Moons KG, Peelen LM.
Accounting for time?dependent treatment use when developing a prognostic model from observational data: A review of methods.
Statistica Neerlandica 2020;74(1):38-51.


Houwert RM, Beks RB, Dijkgraaf MGW, Roes KCB, Öner FC, Hietbrink F, Leenen LPH, Groenwold RHH.
Study methodology in trauma care: towards question-based study designs.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 2019 Oct 29.

Schmidt AF, Heerspink HJL, Denig P, Finan C, Groenwold RHH.
When drug treatments bias genetic studies: Mediation and interaction.
PLoS One 2019;14(8):e0221209.

Beks RB, Bhashyam AR, Houwert RM, van der Velde D, van Heijl M, Smeeing D, Hietbrink F, Leenen LPH, Groenwold R.
When observational studies are as helpful as randomized trials: examples from orthopaedic trauma.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2019;87(3):730-732.

Pajouheshnia R, van Smeden M, Peelen LM, Groenwold RHH.
How variation in predictor measurement affects the discriminative ability and transportability of a prediction model.
J Clin Epidemiol 2019;105:136-141.

Nab L, Groenwold RHH, Welsing PMJ, van Smeden M.
Measurement error in continuous endpoints in randomised trials: Problems and solutions.
Stat Med 2019;38(27):5182-5196.

Pajouheshnia R, Groenwold RHH, Peelen LM, Reitsma JB, Moons KGM.
When and how to use data from randomised trials to develop or validate prognostic models.
BMJ 2019;365:l2154.

Luijken K, Groenwold RHH, Van Calster B, Steyerberg EW, van Smeden M.
Impact of predictor measurement heterogeneity across settings on the performance of prediction models: A measurement error perspective.
Stat Med 2019;38(18):3444-3459.

Ten Doesschate T, Groenwold RHH, Bonten MJM, van Werkhoven CH.
Effectiveness of extended- versus normal-release nitrofurantoin for cystitis: an instrumental variable analysis.
J Antimicrob Chemother 2019;74(11):3337-3343.

Hempenius M, Groenwold RHH, de Boer A, Klungel OH, Gardarsdottir H.
Amiodarone use and the risk of acute pancreatitis: Influence of different exposure definitions.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2019;28(12):1563-1571.

Sharif S, Groenwold RH, van der Graaf Y, Berkelmans GF, Cramer MJ, Visseren FL, Westerink J; SMART study group.
Mediation analysis of the relationship between type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality: findings from the SMART-cohort.
Diabetes Obes Metab 2019 ;1(8):1935-1943.

Eichner FA, Groenwold RH, Grobbee DE, Rengerink KO.
Systematic review showed that stepped wedge cluster randomized trials often did not reach their planned sample size.
J Clin Epidemiol 2019;107:89-100.

Fu EL, Groenwold RHH, Zoccali C, Jager KJ, van Diepen M, Dekker FW.
Merits and caveats of propensity scores to adjust for confounding.
Nephrol Dial Transplant 2019;34(10):1629-1635.

Beks RB, de Jong MB, Houwert RM, Sweet AAR, De Bruin IGJM, Govaert GAM, Wessem KJP, Simmermacher RKJ, Hietbrink F, Groenwold RHH, Leenen LPH.
Long-term follow-up after rib fixation for flail chest and multiple rib fractures.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 2019;45(4):645-654 .

Beks RB, Peek J, de Jong MB, Wessem KJP, Öner CF, Hietbrink F, Leenen LPH, Groenwold RHH, Houwert RM.
Fixation of flail chest or multiple rib fractures: current evidence and how to proceed.
A systematic review and meta-analysis Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 2019;45(4):631-644.

Beks RB, Reetz D, de Jong MB, Groenwold RHH, Hietbrink F, Edwards MJR, Leenen LPH, Houwert RM, Frölke JPM.
Rib fixation versus non-operative treatment for flail chest and multiple rib fractures after blunt thoracic trauma: a multicenter cohort study.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 2019;45(4):655-663.

Uijl A, Koudstaal S, Direk K, Denaxas S, Groenwold RHH, Banerjee A, Hoes AW, Hemingway H, Asselbergs FW.
Risk Factors for Incident Heart Failure in Age and Sex Specific Strata: a Population-Based cohort using linked Electronic Health Records.
Eur J Heart Failure 2019;21(10):1197-1206.

Ochen Y, Beks RB, van Heijl M, Hietbrink F, van der Velde D, Heng, MM, van der Meijden O, Groenwold RHH, Houwert RM.
Is operative treatment of Achilles tendon ruptures indicated? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trails and observational studies.

Ochen Y, Beks RB, van Heijl M, Hietbrink F, van der Velde D, Heng, MM, van der Meijden O, Groenwold RHH, Houwert RM.
Is operative treatment of Achilles tendon ruptures indicated? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trails and observational studies.
BMJ 2019;364:k5120.

Dam V, van der Schouw YT, Onland-Moret NC, Groenwold RHH, Peters SAE, Burgess S, Wood AM, Chirlaque MD, Moons KGM, Oliver-Williams C, Schuit E, Tikk K, Weiderpass E, Holm M, Tjønneland A, Kühn T, Fortner RT, Trichopoulou A, Karakatsani A, La Vecchia C, Ferrari P, Gunter M, Masala G, Sieri S, Tumino R, Panico S, Boer JMA, Verschuren WMM, Salamanca-Fernández E, Arriola L, Moreno-Iribas C, Engström G, Melander O, Nordendahl M, Wennberg P, Key TJ, Colorado-Yohar S, Matullo G, Overvad K, Clavel-Chapelon F, Boeing H, Quiros JR, di Angelantonio E, Langenberg C, Sweeting MJ, Riboli E, Wareham NJ, Danesh J, Butterworth A.
Association of menopausal characteristics and risk of coronary heart disease: a pan-European case-cohort analysis.
Int J Epidemiol. 2019;48(4):1275-1285.

Nawijn F, Ham WHW, Houwert RM, Groenwold RHH, Hietbrink F, Smeeing DPJ.
Quality of reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in emergency medicine based on the PRISMA statement.
BMC Emerg Med 2019;19(1):19.

Brakenhoff TB, Plantinga NL, Wittekamp BHJ, Cremer O, de Lange D, de Keizer NF, Bakhshi-Raiez F, Groenwold RHH, Peelen LM.
Adjusting for disease severity across Intensive Care Units in multicenter studies.
Crit Care Med 2019;47(8):e662-e668.

Gal R, Monninkhof EM, van Gils CH, Groenwold RHH, van den Bongard DH, Peeters PH, Verkooijen HM, May AM.
Applicability of the Trials within Cohorts (TwiCs) design in exercise-oncology.
J Clin Epidemiol 2019;113:137-146.

Groenhof TK, Asselbergs FW, Groenwold RHH, Grobbee DE, Visseren FLJ, Bots ML.
The Effect Of Computerized Decision Support Systems On Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2019;19(1):108.

Ramler PI, Henriquez DDCA, van den Akker T, Caram-Deelder C, Groenwold RHH, Bloemenkamp KWM, van Roosmalen J, van Lith JMM, van der Bom JG; TeMpOH-1 study group.
Comparison of outcome between intrauterine balloon tamponade and uterine artery embolization in the management of persistent postpartum hemorrhage: A propensity score-matched cohort study.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2019;98(11):1473-1482.

Ibáñez L, Sabaté M, Vidal X, Ballarin E, Rottenkolber M, Schmiedl S, Heeke A, Huerta C, Martin Merino E, Montero D, Leon-Muñoz LM, Gasse C, Moore N, Droz C, Lassalle R, Aakjaer M, Andersen M, De Bruin ML, Groenwold R, van den Ham HA, Souverein P, Klungel O, Gardarsdottir H.
Incidence of direct oral anticoagulant use in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and characteristics of users in 6 European countries (2008-2015): A cross-national drug utilization study.
Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2019;85(11):2524-2539.

Beks RB, de Jong MB, Sweet A, Peek J, van Wageningen B, Tromp T, IJpma F, Wouters R, Lansink K, Bemelman M, van Baal M, Hoogendoorn J, Saltzherr T, Groenwold R, Leenen L, Houwert RM.
Multicentre prospective cohort study of nonoperative versus operative treatment for flail chest and multiple rib fractures after blunt thoracic trauma: study protocol.
BMJ Open 2019;9(8):e023660.

van Dijk WB, Grobbee DE, de Vries MC, Groenwold RHH, van der Graaf R, Schuit E.
A systematic breakdown of the levels of evidence supporting the European Society of Cardiology guidelines.
Eur J Prev Cardiol 2019;26(18):1944-1952.

Beks RB, Bhashyam AR, Houwert RM, van der Velde D, van Heijl M, Smeeing DPJ, Hietbrink F, Leenen LPH, Groenwold RHH.
When observational studies are as helpful as randomized trials: Examples from orthopedic trauma.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2019;87(3):730-732.


Groenwold RHH, Shofty I, Miocevic M, van Smeden M, Klugkist I.
Adjustment for unmeasured confounding through informative priors for the confounder-outcome relation.
BMC Med Res Methodol 2018;18(1):174.

Groenwold RHH, van Smeden M.
Investigation of the 'm' in the cmRCT (cohort multiple randomized controlled trial) design revealed dependence between trial results.
J Clin Epidemiol 2018 Sep;101:119-123.

Penning de Vries BBL, van Smeden M, Groenwold RH.
Propensity score estimation using classification and regression trees in the presence of missing covariate data.
Epidemiologic Methods 2018.

Brakenhoff TB, Moons KG, Kluin J, Groenwold RH.
Investigating Risk Adjustment Methods for Health Care Provider Profiling When Observations are Scarce or Events Rare.
Health Serv Insights 2018;11:1178632918785133.

Brakenhoff TB, Roes KCB, Moons KGM, Groenwold RHH.
Outlier classification performance of risk adjustment methods when profiling multiple providers.
BMC Med Res Methodol 2018;18(1):54.

Brakenhoff TB, van Smeden M, Visseren FLJ, Groenwold RHH.
Random measurement error: Why worry? An example of cardiovascular risk factors.
PLoS One 2018;13(2):e0192298.

van der Graaf R, van der Zande ISE, den Ruijter HM, Oudijk MA, van Delden JJM, Oude Rengerink K, Groenwold RHH.
Fair inclusion of pregnant women in clinical trials: an integrated scientific and ethical approach.
Trials 2018;19(1):78.

Penning de Vries BBL, Groenwold RHH.
Cautionary note: propensity score matching does not account for bias due to censoring.
Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2018;33(6);914-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfx198

Ni H, Groenwold RHH, Nielen M, Klugkist I.
Prediction models for clustered data with informative priors for the random effects: a simulation study.
BMC Med Res Methodol 2018;18(1):83.

Brakenhoff TB, Mitroiu M, Keogh RH, Moons KGM, Groenwold RHH, van Smeden M.
Measurement error is often neglected in medical literature: a systematic review.
J Clin Epidemiol 2018;98:89-97.

Beks RB, Ochen Y, Frima H, Smeeing DPJ, van der Meijden O, Timmers TK, van der Velde D, van Heijl M, Leenen LPH, Groenwold RHH, Houwert RM.
Operative versus nonoperative treatment of proximal humeral fractures: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and comparison of observational studies and randomized controlled trials.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2018;27(8):1526-1534.

Althunian TA, de Boer A, Groenwold RHH, Klungel OH.
Using a single noninferiority margin or preserved fraction for an entire pharmacological class was found to be inappropriate.
J Clin Epidemiol 2018;104:15-23.


Groenwold RH, van Smeden M.
A note on efficient sampling in unmatched case-control studies when the sum of the number of cases and controls is fixed.
Epidemiology 2017;28(6):834-7NA.

Groenwold RH, Dekkers OM.
Designing pragmatic trials – what can we learn from lessons learnt?
J Clin Epidemiol 2017;90:3-5.

Pajouheshnia R, Peelen LM, Moons KGM, Reitsma JB, Groenwold RHH.
Accounting for treatment use when validating a prognostic model: a simulation study.
BMC Med Res Methodol 2017;17(1):103.

Penning de Vries BBL, Groenwold RHH.
A comparison of two approaches to implementing propensity score methods following multiple imputation.
Epidemiol Biostat Public Health 2017.

Hazelbag CM, Peters SAE, Blankestijn PJ, Bots ML, Canaud B, Davenport A, Grooteman MPC, Kircelli F, Locatelli F, Maduell F, Morena M, Nubé MJ, Ok E, Torres F, Hoes AW, Groenwold RH; HDF Pooling Project investigators.
The importance of considering competing treatment affecting prognosis in the evaluation of therapy in trials: the example of renal transplantation in hemodialysis trials.
Nephrol Dial Transplant 2017 Apr 1;32(suppl_2):ii31-ii39.

Althunian TA, de Boer A, Klungel OH, Insani WN, Groenwold RH.
Methods of defining the non-inferiority margin in randomized, double-blind controlled trials: a systematic review.
Trials 2017;18(1):107.

Penning de Vries BBL, Kolkert JLP, Meerwaldt R, Groenwold RH.
Atmospheric pressure and abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture: results from a time-series analysis and case-crossover study.
Vasc Endovasc Surg 2017;51(7):441-446.

Van der Velden JM, Verkooijen HM, Young-Afat DA, Burbach JP, van Vulpen M, Relton C, van Gils CH, May AM, Groenwold RH.
The cohort multiple Randomised Controlled Trial design: A valid and efficient alternative to pragmatic trials? Int J Epidemiol.

Kolkert JLP, Groenwold RHH, Leijdekkers VJ, Ter Haar J, Zeebregts CJ, Vahl A.
Cost-Effectiveness of Two Decision Strategies for Shunt Use During Carotid Endarterectomy.
World J Surg 2017;41(11):2959-2967.

van Tuijl D, Groenwold RHH, Vlaskamp C, van Campen JS, Braun KPJ, Jansen FE, Bruining H.
Behavioral disinhibition and antiepileptic treatment in childhood epilepsy: A retrospective cohort study.
Epilepsia Open 2017;2(1):59-66.

Jonkman NH, Groenwold RH, Trappenburg JC, Hoes AW, Schuurmans MJ.
Complex self-management interventions in chronic disease unravelled: a review of lessons learnt from an individual patient data meta-analysis.
J Clin Epidemiol 2017;83:48-56.

Bezin J, Groenwold RH, Ali MS, Lassalle R, Robinson P, de Boer A, Moore N, Klungel OH, Pariente A.
Comparative effectiveness of recommended versus less intensive drug combinations in secondary prevention of acute coronary syndrome.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2017;26(3):285-293.

Smeeing DPJ, van der Ven DJC, Hietbrink F, Timmers TK, van Heijl M, Kruyt MC, Groenwold RH, van der Meijden OA, Houwert RM.
Surgical versus conservative treatment for displaced midshaft clavicle fractures: a systematic review, meta-analysis and comparison of randomized controlled trials and observational studies.
Am J Sports Med 2017;45(8):1937-1945.

Althunian TA, de Boer A, Groenwold RH, Klungel OH.
Defining the non-inferiority margin and analyzing non-inferiority: An overview.
Br J Clin Pharmacol 2017;83(8):1636-1642.

Hennus PM, van den Hoek J, Hoes AW, Groenwold RH, Bosch JL, de Jong TP, de Kort LM.
Long-term effect of conservative treatment versus low threshold endoscopic desobstruction on urine incontinence and urgency in boys with persistent overactive bladder symptoms: A cohort study.
Neurourol Urodyn 2017;36(7):1924-1929.

Ankarfeldt MZ, Thorsted BL, Groenwold RH, Adalsteinsson E, Ali MS, Klungel OH.
Assessment of channeling bias among initiators of glucose-lowering drugs: A UK cohort study.
Clin Epidemiol 2017;9:19-30.

Ankarfeldt MZ, Adalsteinsson E, Groenwold RH, Ali MS, Klungel OH.
A systematic literature review on the efficacy-effectiveness gap: comparison of randomized controlled trials and observational studies of glucose-lowering drugs.
Clin Epidemiol 2017;9:41-51.

Worsley SD, Oude Rengerink K, Irving E, Lejeune S, Mol K, Collier S, Groenwold RHH, Enters-Weijnen C, Egger M, Rhodes T; GetReal Work Package 3.
Challenges in Pragmatic Trials: Selection and Inclusion of Usual Care Sites.
J Clin Epidemiol 2017;88:14-20.

Oude Rengerink K, Kalkman S, Collier S, Ciaglia A, Worsley SD, Lightbourne A, Eckert L, Groenwold RHH, Grobbee DE, Irving EA; Work Package 3 of the GetReal consortium.
Participant eligibility, recruitment and retention in pragmatic trials.
J Clin Epidemiol 2017;89:173-80.

Zuidgeest M, Goetz I, Groenwold R, Irving E, van Thiel G, Grobbee DE; GetReal Work Package 3.
Pragmatic trials and real world evidence - an introduction to the series.
J Clin Epidemiol 2017;88:7-13.

Gal R, Monninkhof EM, Groenwold RHH, van Gils CH, van den Bongard DHJG, Peeters PHM, Verkooijen HM, May AM.
The effects of exercise on the quality of life of patients with breast cancer (the UMBRELLA Fit study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials 2017;18(1):504.

van Doorn S, Brakenhoff TB, Moons KGM, Rutten FH, Hoes AW, Groenwold RHH, Geersing GJ.
The effects of misclassification in routine health care databases on the accuracy of prognostic prediction models: A case study of the CHA2DS2-VASc score in atrial fibrillation.
BMC Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2017;1:18.

Pajouheshnia R, Damen JAAG, Groenwold RHH, Moons KGM, Peelen LM.
Treatment use in prognostic model research: a systematic review of cardiovascular prognostic studies.
Diagnostic Progn Res 2017;1(1):15.


Groenwold RH, Sterne JAC, Lawlor DA, Moons KGM, Hoes AW, Tilling K.
The joint effect of multiple unmeasured confounders: an example of ascorbic acid intake and mortality.
Ann Epidemiol 2016;26(9):605-11NA.

Groenwold RH, Moons KG, Pajouheshnia R, Altman DG, Colins GS, Debray TP, Reitsma JB, Riley R, Peelen LM.
Explicit inclusion of treatment in prognostic modelling was recommended in observational and randomised settings.
J Clin Epidemiol 2016 Oct;78:90-100.

Groenwold RH, de Groot MC, Ramamoorthy D, Souverein PC, Klungel OH.
Unmeasured confounding in pharmacoepidemiology.
Ann Epidemiol 2016 Jan;26(1):85-6.

Pajouheshnia R, Pestman WR, Teerenstra S, Groenwold RH.
A Computational Approach to Compare Regression Modelling Strategies in Prediction Research.
BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016;16(1):107.

Schmidt AF, Klungel OH, Groenwold RH.
Adjusting for confounding in early post-launch settings: going beyond logistic regression models.
Epidemiology, 2016;27(1):133-42.

Ali MS, Groenwold RH, Klungel OH.
Best (but oft-forgotten) practices: propensity score methods in clinical nutrition research.
Am J Clin Nutr 2016;104(2):247-58.

de Bruin JL, Groenwold RH, Baas AF, Brownrigg JR, Prinssen M, Grobbee DE, Blankensteijn JD; DREAM Study Group.
Quality of life from a randomized trial of open and endovascular repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm.
Br J Surg 2016;103(8):995-1002.

Uddin MJ, Groenwold RH, Ali MS, de Boer A, Roes KC, Chowdhury MA, Klungel OH.
Methods to control for unmeasured confounding in pharmacoepidemiology: an overview.
Int J Clin Pharm 2016;38(3):714-23.

Schmidt AF, Groenwold RH, Amsellem P, Bacon N, Klungel OH, Hoes AW, de Boer A, Kow K, Maritato K, Kirpensteijn J, Nielen M.
Which dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma benefit most from chemotherapy after surgery? Results from an individual patient data meta-analysis.
Prev Vet Med 2016;125:116-25.

Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité DG, Groenwold RH, Schmidt B, Löscher W.
Single dose efficacy evaluation of two partial benzodiazepine receptor agonists in photosensitive epilepsy patients: A placebo-controlled pilot study.
Epilepsy Res 2016;122:30-36.

Ali MS, Groenwold RH, Belitser SV, Souverein PC, Martín E, Gatto NM, Huerta C, Gardarsdottir H, Roes KCB, Hoes AW, de Boer A, Klungel OH.
Methodological comparison of marginal structural model, time-varying Cox regression and propensity score methods: the example of antidepressant use and the risk of hip fracture.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2016;25 Suppl 1:114-21.

Uddin MJ, Groenwold RH, de Boer A, Afonso AS, Primatesta P, Becker C, Belitser SV, Hoes AW, Roes KC, Klungel OH.
Evaluating Different Physician’s Prescribing Preference Based Instrumental Variables in Two Primary Care Databases: a Study of Inhaled Long-acting Beta2-Agonist Use and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2016;25 Suppl 1:132-41.

Uddin MJ, Groenwold RH, de Boer A, Gardarsdottir H, Martin E, Candore G, Belitser SV, Hoes AW, Roes KC, Klungel OH.
Instrumental Variables Analysis Using Multiple Databases: an Example of Antidepressant Use and Risk of Hip Fracture.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2016;25 Suppl 1:122-31.

de Groot MC, Candore G, Souverein PC, Ali MS, Belitser SV, Uddin MJ, Huerta C, Groenwold RH, Alvarez Y, Slattery J, Korevaar J, Schlienger RG, Reynolds R, Klungel OH, Gardarsdottir H.
Case only designs for studying the association of antidepressants and hip or femur fracture.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2016;25 Suppl 1:103-13.

Souverein PC, Abbing-Karahagopian V, Martin E, Huerta C, de Abajo F, Leufkens HGM, Candore G, Alvarez Y, Slattery J, Miret M, Requena G, Gil MJ, Groenwold RH, Reynolds R, Schlienger RG, Logie JW, de Groot MCH, Klungel OH, van Staa TP, Egberts TCG, De Bruin ML, Gardarsdottir H.
Understanding inconsistency in the results from observational pharmacoepidemiological studies: the case of antidepressant use and risk of hip/femur fractures.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2016;25 Suppl 1:88-102.

Pouwels K, Widyakusuma NN, Groenwold RH, Hak E.
Quality of reporting of confounding remained suboptimal after the STROBE guideline.
J Clin Epidemiol 2016;69:217-24.

Schmidt AF, Klungel OH, Nielen M, de Boer A, Groenwold RH, Hoes AW.
Tailoring treatments using treatment effect modification.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2016;25(4):355-62.

Schuit E, Hukkelhoven CW, van der Goes BY, Overbeeke I, Moons KG, Mol BW, Groenwold RH, Kwee A.
Risk indicators for referral during labor from community midwife to gynecologist: a prospective cohort study.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2016;29(20):3304-11.

Jonkman NH, Schuurmans MJ, Groenwold RH, Hoes AW, Trappenburg JC.
Identifying components of self-management interventions that improve health-related quality of life in chronically ill patients: Systematic review and meta-regression analysis.
Patient Educ Couns 2016;99(7):1087-1098.

Monfrance MJ, Schuit E, Groenwold RH, Oudijk MA, de Graaf IM, Bax CJ, Bekedam DJ, Mol BW, Langenveld J.
Pessary placement in the prevention of preterm birth in multiple pregnancies: a propensity score analysis.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2016;197:72-7.

Schmidt AF, Nielen M, Withrow SJ, Selmic LE, Burton JH, Klungel OH, Groenwold RH, Kirpensteijn J.
Chemotherapy effectiveness and mortality prediction in surgically treated osteosarcoma dogs: A validation study.
Prev Vet Med 2016;125:126-34.

Nordon C, Karcher H, Groenwold RH, Ankarfeldt MZ, Pichler F, Chevrou-Severac H, Rossignol M, Abbe A, Abenhaim L, GetReal consortium.
The 'Efficacy-Effectiveness Gap': Historical Background and Current Conceptualization.
Value Health 2016 Jan;19(1):75-81.

Jonkman NH, Westland H, Groenwold RH, Ågren S, Atienza F, Blue L, Bruggink-André de la Porte PW, DeWalt DA, Hebert PL, Heisler M, Jaarsma T, Kempen GI, Leventhal ME, Lok DJ, Mårtensson J, Muñiz J, Otsu H, Peters-Klimm F, Rich MW, Riegel B, Strömberg A, Tsuyuki RT, van Veldhuisen DJ, Trappenburg JC, Schuurmans MJ, Hoes AW.
Do Self-Management Interventions Work in Patients With Heart Failure? An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis.
Circulation 2016;133(12):1189-98.

Jonkman NH, Westland H, Trappenburg JC, Groenwold RH, Bischoff EW, Bourbeau J, Bucknall CE, Coultas D, Effing TW, Epton M, Gallefoss F, Garcia-Aymerich J, Lloyd SM, Monninkhof EM, Nguyen HQ, van der Palen J, Rice KL, Sedeno M, Taylor SJ, Troosters T, Zwar NA, Hoes AW, Schuurmans MJ.
Characteristics of effective self-management interventions in patients with COPD: individual patient data meta-analysis.
Eur Respir J 2016;48(1):55-68.

Nieuwenhuis JB, Irving E, Oude Rengerink K, Lloyd E, Goetz I, Grobbee DE, Stolk P, Groenwold RH, Zuidgeest MG; work package 3 of the GetReal consortium.
Pragmatic trial design elements showed a different impact on trial interpretation and feasibility than explanatory elements.
J Clin Epidemiol 2016;77:95-100.

Blanken MO, Korsten K, Achten NB, Tamminga S, Nibbelke EE, Sanders EA, Smit HA, Groenwold RH, Bont L, Dutch RSV Neonatal Network.
Population-Attributable Risk of Risk Factors for Recurrent Wheezing in Moderate Preterm Infants During the First Year of Life.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2016;30(4):376-85.

Jonkman NH, Westland H, Groenwold RH, Ågren S, Anguita M, Blue L, Bruggink-André de la Porte PW, DeWalt DA, Hebert PL, Heisler M, Jaarsma T, Kempen GI, Leventhal ME, Lok DJ, Mårtensson J, Muñiz J, Otsu H, Peters-Klimm F, Rich MW, Riegel B, Strömberg A, Tsuyuki RT, Trappenburg JC, Schuurmans MJ, Hoes AW.
What Are Effective Program Characteristics of Self-Management Interventions in Patients With Heart Failure? An Individual Patient Data Meta-analysis.
J Card Fail 2016;22(11):861-871.

Jonkman NH, Westland H, Trappenburg JC, Groenwold RH, Bischoff EW, Bourbeau J, Bucknall CE, Coultas D, Effing TW, Epton MJ, Gallefoss F, Garcia-Aymerich J, Lloyd SM, Monninkhof EM, Nguyen HQ, van der Palen J, Rice KL, Sedeno M, Taylor SJ, Troosters T, Zwar NA, Hoes AW, Schuurmans MJ.
Do self-management interventions in COPD patients work and which patients benefit most? An individual patient data meta-analysis.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2016;11:2063-74.

Schmidt AF, Hingorani AD, Jefferis BJ, White J, Groenwold RH, Dudbridge F; UCLEB Consortium.
Comparison of variance estimators for meta-analysis of instrumental variable estimates.
Int J Epidemiol 2016;45(6):1975-1986.


Hazelbag CM, Klungel OH, van Staa TP, de Boer A, Groenwold RH.
Left-truncation results in substantial bias of the relation between time-dependent exposures and adverse events.
Ann Epidemiol 2015;25(8):590-6.

Schmidt AF, Klugkist I, Klungel OH, Nielen M, de Boer A, Hoes AW, Groenwold RH.
Bayesian methods including nonrandomized study data increased the efficiency of postlaunch RCTs.
J Clin Epidemiol 2015;68(4):387-96.

Hazelbag CM, Zaal IJ, Devlin JW, Gatto NM, Hoes AW, Slooter AJC, Groenwold RH.
An application of inverse probability weighting estimation of marginal structural models of a continuous exposure.
Epidemiology 2015;26(5):e52-3.

Schuit E, Roes KCB, Mol BWJ, Kwee A, Moons KGM, Groenwold RH.
Conduct of subgroup analyses in meta-analysis triggered by previous (false-)significant findings: problems and solutions.
Systematic reviews 2015;4:57.

Uddin MJ, Groenwold RH, de Boer A, Belitser SV, Roes KCB, Klungel OH.
Instrumental Variable Analysis in Epidemiologic Studies: An Overview of the Estimation Methods.
Pharm Anal Acta 2015;6(353):2.

Uddin MJ, Groenwold RH, van Staa TP, de Boer A, Belitser SV, Hoes AW, Roes KC, Klungel OH.
Performance of prior event rate ratio adjustment method in pharmacoepidemiology: a simulation study.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2015;24(5):468-77.

Ali MS, Groenwold RH, Belitser SV, Pestman WR, Hoes AW, Roes KC, Boer AD, Klungel OH.
Reporting of covariate selection and balance assessment in propensity score analysis is suboptimal: a systematic review.
J Clin Epidemiol 2015;68(2):112-21.

van der Spek J, Groenwold RH, van der Burg M, van Montfrans JM.
TREC Based Newborn Screening for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency: A Systematic Review.
Journal of Clin Imm 2015;35(4):416-30.

Fokkema M, Vrijenhoek JE, Den Ruijter HM, Groenwold RH, Schermerhorn ML, Bots ML, Pasterkamp G, Moll FL, De Borst GJ; TREAT CARE Study Group.
Stenting Versus Endarterectomy for Restenosis Following Prior Ipsilateral Carotid Endarterectomy: An Individual Patient Data Meta-analysis.
Ann Surg 2015;261(3):598-604.

Schuit E, Stock S, Rode L, Rouse D, Lim A, Norman J, Nassar A, Serra V, Combs C, Vayssiere C, Aboulghar M, Wood S, Cetingöz E, Briery C, Fonseca E, Worda K, Tabor A, Thom E, Caritis S, Awwad J, Usta I, Perales A, Meseguer J, Maurel K, Garite T, Aboulghar M, Amin Y, Ross S, Cam C, Karateke A, Morrison J, Magann E, Nicolaides K, Zuithoff N, Groenwold RH, Moons K, Kwee A, Mol B; a Global Obstetrics Network (GONet) collaboration.
Effectiveness of progestogens to improve perinatal outcome in twin pregnancies: an individual participant data meta-analysis.
BJOG. 2015;122(1):27-37.

Ng ES, Klungel OH, Groenwold RH, van Staa TP.
Risk patterns in drug safety study using relative times by accelerated failure time models when proportional hazards assumption is questionable: an illustrative case study of cancer risk of patients on glucose-lowering therapies.
Pharm Stat 2015 Sep-Oct;14(5):382-94.

Debray TP, Moons KG, van Valkenhoef G, Efthimiou O, Hummel N, Groenwold RH, Reitsma JB; GetReal methods review group.
Get real in individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis: a review of the methodology.
Res Synth Methods 2015;6(4):293-309.

Klungel OH, Jamal Uddin M, de Boer A, Belitser SV, Groenwold RH, Roes KC.
Instrumental Variable Analysis in Epidemiologic Studies: An Overview of the Estimation Methods.
Pharm Anal Acta 2015;6:353.

Zaal IJ, Devlin JW, Hazelbag CM, Klein Klouwenberg P, van der Kooi AW, Ong DSY, Cremer OL, Groenwold RH, Slooter AJC.
Benzodiazepine-associated delirium in critically ill patients.
Intesive Care Medicine 2015;41(12):2130-7.


Groenwold RH, Moons KG, Vandenbroucke JP.
Randomized trials with missing outcome data: how to analyze and what to report.
CMAJ 2014;186(15):1153-7.

Groenwold RH, Uddin MJ, Roes KCB, de Boer A, Rivero-Ferrer E, Martin E, Gatto NM, Klungel OH.
Instrumental variable analysis in randomized trials with non-compliance and observational pharmacoepidemiologic studies.
OA Epidemiology 2014;2(1):9.

Groenwold RH, Tilling K, Moons KGM, Hoes AW, van der Ent CK, Kramer MS, Martin RM, Sterne JAC.
Breastfeeding and health consequences in early childhood: is there an impact of time-dependent confounding?
Ann Nutr Metab. 2014;65(2-3):139-48.

Siregar S, Pouw ME, Peelen LM, Moons KGM, Bots ML, van der Graaf Y, Kalkman CJ, van Herwerden LA, Groenwold RH.
Provider profiling using routine administrative hospital data versus clinical data: the example of a national cardiac surgery registry.
Heart 2014;100(9):702-10.

Rietbergen C, Groenwold RH, Hoijtink HJA, Moons KGM, Klugkist I.
Expert elicitation of study weights for Bayesian informative prior specification.
J Mixed Meth Res 2014;10(2):168-181.

Uddin MJ, Groenwold RH, de Boer A, Belitser SV, Roes KC, Hoes AW, Klungel OH.
Performance of instrumental variable methods in cohort and nested case-control studies: a simulation study.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2014;23(2):165-77.

Ali MS, Groenwold RH, Klungel OH.
Propensity score methods and unobserved covariate imbalance: comments on 'squeezing the balloon'.
Health Serv Res 2014;49(3):1074-82.

Ali MS, Groenwold RH, Pestman WR, Belitser SV, Roes KC, Hoes AW, de Boer A, Klungel OH.
Propensity score balance measures in pharmacoepidemiology: a simulation study.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2014;23(8):802-11.

Pestman WR, Groenwold RH, Teerenstra S.
Comparison of strategies when building linear prediction models.
Numer Linear Algebr 2014;21(5):618-28.

Schmidt AF, Groenwold RH, Knol MJ, Hoes AW, Nielen M, Roes KC, de Boer A, Klungel OH.
Exploring interaction effects in small samples increases rates of false-positive and false-negative findings: results from a systematic review and simulation study.
J Clin Epidemiol 2014;67(7):821-9.

Schmidt AF, Groenwold RH, van Delden JJ, van der Does Y, Klungel OH, Roes KC, Hoes AW, van der Graaf R.
Justification of exclusion criteria was underreported in a review of cardiovascular trials.
J Clin Epidemiol 2014;67(6):635-44.

Siregar S, de Heer F, Groenwold RH, Versteegh MI, Bekkers JA, Brinkman ES, Bots ML, van der Graaf Y, van Herwerden LA.
Trends and outcomes of valve surgery: 16-year results of -The Netherlands Cardiac Surgery National Database.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2014;46(3):386-97.

Boessen R, Lambers Heerspink HJ, De Zeeuw D, Grobbee DE, Groenwold RH, Roes KCB.
Improving trial efficiency by patient selection on baseline marker levels or early marker improvements after active run-in.
Trials 2014;15:103.

van de Mheen L, Schuit E, Lim AC, Porath MM, Papatsonis D, Erwich JJ, van Eyck J, van Oirschot CM, Hummel P, Duvekot JJ, Hasaart TH, Groenwold RH, Moons KG, de Groot CJ, Bruinse HW, van Pampus MG, Mol BW.
Prediction of preterm birth in multiple pregnancies: development of a multivariable model including cervical length measurement at 16 to 21 weeks' gestation.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2014;36(4):309-19.

Ali MS, Uddin MJ, Groenwold RH, Pestman WR, Belitser SV, Hoes AW, de Boer A, Roes KC, Klungel OH.
Quantitative falsification of instrumental variables assumption using balance measures.
Epidemiology 2014;25(5):770-2.

Kampschreur LM, Delsing CE, Groenwold RH, Wegdam-Blans MC, Bleeker-Rovers CP, de Jager-Leclercq MG, Hoepelman AI, van Kasteren ME, Buijs J, Renders NH, Nabuurs-Franssen MH, Oosterheert JJ, Wever PC.
Chronic Q fever in the Netherlands 5 years after the start of the Q fever epidemic: results from the Dutch chronic Q fever database.
J Clin Microbiol 2014;52(5):1637-43.

Jonkman NH, Westland H, Trappenburg JC, Groenwold RH, Effing-Tijdhof TW, Troosters T, van der Palen J, Bourbeau J, Jaarsma T, Hoes AW, Schuurmans MJ.
Towards tailoring of self-management for patients with chronic heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a protocol for an individual patient data meta-analysis.
BMJ Open 2014;4(5):e005220.


Groenwold RH, Klungel OH, Altman DG, van der Graaf Y, Hoes AW, Moons KGM.
Adjustment for continuous confounders: an example of how to prevent residual confounding.
CMAJ 2013;185(5):401-406.

Groenwold RH, Van der Graaf R, Van Delden JJM.
How and when does consent bias research.
Am J Bioethics 2013;13(4):46-48.

Groenwold RH, Knol MJ.
Learning styles and preferences for live and distance education: an example of a specialisation course in epidemiology.
BMC Med Educ 2013;13:93.

Beulens JWJ, van der Schouw YT, Moons KGM, Boshuizen HC, van der A DL, Groenwold RH.
Estimating the mediating effect of different biomarkers on the relation of alcohol consumption with risk of type 2 diabetes.
Ann Epidemiol 2013;23(4):193-7.

Schmidt AF, Rovers MM, Klungel OH, Hoes AW, Knol MJ, Nielen M, de Boer A, Groenwold RH.
Similarity of interaction and subgroup-specific effects in randomized and non-randomized studies: three empirical examples.
J Clin Epidemiol 2013;66(6):599-607.

Siregar S, Roes KCB, van Straten AHM, Bots ML, van der Graaf Y, van Herwerden LA, Groenwold RH.
Statistical methods to monitor risk factors in a clinical database: a simulation study using the example of a national cardiac surgery cohort.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2013;6(1):110-8.

Rutten FH, Groenwold RH.
Beta blocker therapy for adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
BMJ 2013;347:f7050.

Sanni Ali M, Groenwold RH, Pestman WR, Belitser SV, Hoes AW, de Boer A, Klungel OH.
Time-Dependent Propensity Score and Collider-Stratification Bias: an example of inhaled beta2-agonist use and the risk of myocardial infarction.
Eur J Epidemiol 2013;28:291-9.

Siregar S, Groenwold RH, Versteegh MI, Takkenberg JJ, Bots ML, van der Graaf Y, van Herwerden LA.
Data Resource Profile: Adult Cardiac Surgery Database of the Netherlands Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery.
Int J Epidemiol 2013;42:142-149.

Siregar S, Groenwold RH, Versteegh MI, Noyez L, ter Burg WJPP, Bots ML, van der Graaf Y, van Herwerden LA.
Gaming in risk-adjusted mortality rates: The effect of misclassification of risk factors in the benchmarking of cardiac surgery risk-adjusted mortality rates.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2013;145(3):781-9.

Siregar S, Groenwold RH, de Mol BAJM, Speekenbrink RGH, Brandon Bravo Bruinsma GJ, Bots ML, van der Graaf Y, van Herwerden LA.
Evaluation of cardiac surgery mortality rates: 30-day mortality or longer follow-up? Eur J Cardiothoracic Surg.

Schuit E, Groenwold RH, Harrell FE jr, de Kort WLA, Kwee A, Mol BWJ, Moons KGM.
Unexpected findings in prediction research: causes and solutions.
CMAJ 2013;185(10):E499-505.

Boessen R, Groenwold RH, Knol MJ, Grobbee DE, Roes KC.
Comparing HAMD(17) and HAMD subscales on their ability to differentiate active treatment from placebo in randomized controlled trials.
J Affect Disord 2013;145(3):363-9.

Rutten FH, Groenwold RH, Sachs AP, Grobbee DE, Hoes AW.
beta-blockers and all-cause mortality in adults with episodes of acute bronchitis: an observational study.
PLoS ONE 2013;8(6):e67122.

Van der Graaf R, Groenwold RH, Kalkman S, Grobbee DE, van Delden JJM.
From justifying inclusion to justifying exclusion of study populations.
World Med J 2013;5:192-7.

Schmidt AF, Nielen M, Klungel OH, Hoes AW, de Boer A, Groenwold RH, Kirpensteijn J.
Prognostic Factors of early metastasis and mortality in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma after receiving surgery: an individual patient data meta-analysis.
Prev Vet Med 2013;112(3-4):414-22.

Melsen WG, Rovers MM, Groenwold RH, Bergmans DC, Camus C, Bauer TT, Hanisch EW, Klarin B, Koeman M, Krueger WA, Lacherade JC, Lorente L, Memish ZA, Morrow LE, Nardi G, van Nieuwenhoven CA, O'Keefe GE, Nakos G, Scannapieco FA, Seguin P, Staudinger T, Topeli A, Ferrer M, Bonten MJ.
Attributable mortality of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomised prevention studies.
Lancet Infect Dis 2103;13(8):665-71.

Boessen R, van der Baan FH, Groenwold RH, Egberts ACG, Klungel OH, Grobbee DE, Knol MJ, Roes KCB.
Optimizing trial design in pharmacogenetics research; comparing a fixed parallel group, group sequential and adaptive selection design on sample size requirements.
Pharm Stat 2013;12(6):366-74.

Schuit E, Amer-Wahlin I, Ojala K, Vayssière C, Westerhuis ME, Maršál K, Tekay A, Saade GR, Visser GH, Groenwold RH, Moons KG, Mol BW, Kwee A.
Effectiveness of cardiotocography with additional ST-analysis in intrapartum foetal monitoring of vertex singleton pregnancies beyond 36 weeks of gestation: an individual participant data meta-analysis.
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2013;208(3):187.

Janssen N, van Lelyveld SFL, Hoepelman A, Gras L, Groenwold RH, Oosterheert JJ.
The effect of statin therapy on pneumonia in an HIV-infected population in the Netherlands.
J Infect 2013;67(3):238-41.


Groenwold RH, White IR, Donders ART, Carpenter JR, Altman DG, Moons KGM.
Missing data in clinical research: when and when not to use the indicator method.
CMAJ 2012;184(11):1265-9.

Groenwold RH, Donders ART, Roes KCB, Harrell Jr.
FE, Moons KGM.
Dealing with missing outcome data in randomized trials and observational studies Am J Epidemiol 2012;175(3):210-7.

Knol MJ, Le Cessie S, Algra A, Vandenbroucke JP, Groenwold RHH.
Tackling the problem of overestimating risk ratios by odds ratios in randomized controlled trials and observational cohort studies: alternatives for logistic regression.
CMAJ 2012;184(8):895-9.

Schuit E, Kwee A, Westerhuis MEMH, van Dessel HJHM, Graziosi GCM, van Lith JMM, Nijhuis JG, Oei SG, Oosterbaan HP, Schuitemaker NWE, Wouters MGAJ, Visser GHA, Mol BWJ, Moons KGM, Groenwold RH.
A clinical prediction model to assess the risk of operative delivery.
BJOG 2012;119(8):915-23.

Boessen R, Groenwold RH, Knol MJ, Grobbee DE, Roes KCB.
Classifying responders and non-responders; does it help when there is evidence of differentially responding patient groups? J Psychiatr Res.

Siregar S, Groenwold RH, Jansen EK, Bots ML, van der Graaf Y, van Herwerden LA.
Limitations of ranking lists based on cardiac surgery mortality rates.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2012;5(3):403-9.

Siregar S, Groenwold RH, de Heer F, Bots ML, van der Graaf Y, van Herwerden LA.
Performance of the original EuroSCORE.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2012;41(4):746-54.

Knol MJ, Groenwold RH, Grobbee DE.
Testing for baseline differences in randomised controlled trials is nonsense but still common practice in high impact journals.
Eur J Prev Cardiol 2012;19(2):231-2.

Westerhuis MEMH, Schuit E, Kwee A, Zuithoff NPA, Groenwold RH, van den Akker ESA, van Beek E, van Dessel HJHM, Drogtrop AP, van Geijn HP, Graziosi GCP, van Lith JMM, Nijhuis JG, Oei SG, Oosterbaan HP, Porath MM, Rijnders RJP, Schuitemaker NEW, Wijnberder LDE, Willekes C, Wouters MGAJ, Visser GHA, Mol BWJ, Moons KGM.
Prediction of Neonatal Metabolic Acidosis in Women with a Singleton Term Pregnancy in Cephalic Presentation.
Am J Perinatol 2012;29(3):167-74.

Rodenburg GD, Fransen F, Bogaert D, Schippers K, Claus H, Vogel U, Groenwold RH, van de Beek D, van der Ley P, Sanders EAM, van der Ende A.
Prevalence and Clinical Course in Invasive Infections with Meningococcal Endotoxin Variants.
PLoS One 2012;7(11):e49295.

van Deursen AMM, Rovers MM, Veenhoven RH, Groenwold RH, Bonten MJM, Verheij ThJM, Sanders EAM.
Trends in primary care consultations, comorbidities, and antibiotic prescriptions for respiratory infections in the Netherlands: 1995-2005.
Epidemiol Infect 2012;140(5):823-34.

Schuit E, Amer-Wahlin I, Groenwold RH, Mol BWJ, Moons KGM, Kwee A.
Prediction of neonatal metabolic acidosis in women with a singleton term pregnancy in cephalic presentation: an external validation study.
Am J Perinatol 2012;29(9):681-6.

Schuit E, Stock S, Groenwold RH, Maurel K, Combs CA, Garite T, Spong CY, Thom EA, Rouse DJ, Caritis SN, Saade GR, Zachary JM, Norman JE, Rode L, Klein K, Tabor A, Çetingöz E, Morrison JC, Magann EF, Briery CM, Serra V, Perales AJ, Meseguer J, Nassar AH, Lim AC, Moons KGM, Kwee A, Mol BWJ.
Progestogen to prevent preterm birth in twin pregnancies: an individual participant data meta-analysis of randomized trials.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2012;12:13.

Kampschreur LM, Oosterheert JJ, Koop AM, Wegdam-Blans MC, Delsing CE, Bleeker-Rovers CP, De Jager-Leclercq MG, Groot CA, Sprong T, Nabuurs-Franssen MH, Renders NH, van Kasteren ME, Soethoudt Y, Blank SN, Pronk MJ, Groenwold RH, Hoepelman AI, Wever PC.
Microbiological challenges in the diagnosis of chronic Q fever.
Clin Vaccine Immunol 2012;19(5):787-90.

Kampschreur LM, Dekker S, Hagenaars JCJP, Lestrade PJ, Renders NHM, de Jager-Leclercq MGL, Hermans MHA, Groot CAR, Groenwold RH, Hoepelman AIM, Wever PC, Oosterheert JJ.
A case control study to identify risk factors for the development of chronic Q fever.
Emerg Infect Dis 2012;18(4):563-70.

Boessen R, Knol MJ, Groenwold RH, Grobbee DE, Roes KCB.
Early reallocation of placebo non-responders in the sequential parallel comparison design may substantially increase the efficiency of antidepressant clinical trials.
Clin Trials 2012;9(5):578-87.


Groenwold RH, Klungel OH, Grobbee DE, Hoes AW.
Selection of confounding variables should not be based on observed associations with exposure.
Eur J Epidemiol 2011;26:589-93.

Groenwold RH, de Vries F, de Boer A, Pestman WR, Belitser SV, Rutten FH, Hoes AW, Klungel OH.
Balance measures for propensity score methods: a clinical example on beta-agonist use and the risk of myocardial infarction.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2011;20:1130-37.

Groenwold RH, Moons KG, Peelen LM, Knol MJ, Hoes AW.
Reporting of treatment effects from randomized trials: A plea for multivariable risk ratios.
Contemp Clin Trials 2011;32(3):399-402.

Knol MJ, Duijnhoven RG, Grobbee DE, Moons KGM, Groenwold RH.
Potential misinterpretation of treatment effects due to use of odds ratios and logistic regression in randomized controlled trials.
PLoS One 2011;6(6):e21248.

van Mourik MSM, Groenwold RH, Berkelbach van der Sprenckel JW, van Solinge WW, Troelstra A, Bonten MJM.
Automated Detection of External Ventricular and Lumbar Drain-Related Meningitis Using Laboratory and Microbiology Results and Medication Data.
PLoS One 2011;6(8):e22846.

Rosella L, Groenwold RH, Crowcroft N.
Assessing the impact of confounding (measured and unmeasured) in a case control study to examine the increased risk of pandemic A/H1N1 associated with receipt of the 2008-9 seasonal influenza vaccine.
Vaccine 2011;29:9194-200.

Schubart CD, Boks MP, Breetvelt EJ, van Gastel WA, Groenwold RH, Ophoff RA, Sommer IE, Kahn RS.
Association between cannabis and psychiatric hospitalization.
Acta Psychiatr Scand 2011;123(5):368-75.

Knol MJ, Vanderweele TJ, Groenwold RH, Klungel OH, Rovers MM, Grobbee DE.
Estimating measures of interaction on an additive scale for preventive exposures.
Eur J Epidemiol 2011;26(6):433-8.

Belitser SV, Martens EP, Pestman WR, Groenwold RH, de Boer A, Klungel OH.
Measuring balance and model selection in propensity score methods.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2011;20:1115-29.

Bruns AH, Oosterheert JJ, Cucciolillo MC, El Moussaoui R, Groenwold RH, Prins JM, Hoepelman AI.
Cause-specific long-term mortality rates in patients recovered from community-acquired pneumonia compared with the general Dutch population.
Clin Microbiol Infect 2011;17(5):763-768.

Lim AC, Schuit E, Bloemenkamp K, Bernardus RE, Duvekot JJ, Erwich JJ, van Eyck J, Groenwold RH, Hasaart TH, Hummel P, Kars MM, Kwee A, van Oirschot CM, van Pampus MG, Papatsonis D, Porath MM, Spaanderman ME, Willekes C, Wilpshaar J, Mol BW, Bruinse HW.
17?-hydroxyprogesterone Caproate for the Prevention of Adverse Neonatal Outcome in Multiple Pregnancies: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Obstet Gynecol 2011;118(3):513-520.


Groenwold RH, Nelson DB, Nichol KL, Hoes AW, Hak E.
Sensitivity analyses to estimate the potential impact of unmeasured confounding in causal research.
Int J Epidemiol 2010;39:107-17.

Groenwold RH, Rovers MM.
The catch-22 of appraisals on the quality of observational studies.
J Clin Epidemiol 2010;63:1059-60.

Groenwold RH, Rovers MM, Lubsen J, van der Heijden GJMG.
Subgroup effects despite homogeneous heterogeneity test results.
BMC Med Res Methodol 2010;10:43.

Groenwold RH, Hak E, Klungel OH, Hoes AW.
Instrumental variables in influenza vaccination studies: Mission impossible?!
Value Health 2010;13:132-7.


Groenwold RH, Hak E, Hoes AW.
Quantitative assessment of unobserved confounding is mandatory in non-randomized intervention studies.
J Clin Epidemiol 2009;62:22-8.

Groenwold RH, Donders ART, van der Heijden GJMG, Hoes AW, Rovers MM.
Confounding of subgroup analyses in randomized trials.
Arch Intern Med 2009;169:1532-4.

Groenwold RH, Hoes AW, Hak E.
Impact of influenza vaccination on mortality risk among elderly.
Eur Respir J 2009;34:56-62.

Groenwold RH, Hak E, Hoes AW.
Pooling of confounders did not induce residual confounding in influenza vaccination studies.
Ann Epidemiol 2009;19:432-6.

Groenwold RH, Hoes AW, Nichol KL, Hak E.
Quantifying the potential role of unmeasured confounders: the example of influenza vaccination.
Int J Epidemiol. 2008,37;1422-9.

Groenwold RH, van Deursen AM, Hoes AW, Hak E.
Poor quality of reporting confounding bias in non-randomized intervention studies: a systematic review.
Ann Epidemiol 2008;18:746-51.

Groenwold RH, Hoes AW, Hak E.
Trends in appreciating confounding bias in publications of observational studies assessing effects of interventions.
Eur J Epidemiol 2007;22:413-5.

Books and book chapters


Contributor to Compendium Geneeskunde 2.0. Epidemiologie en statistiek 2019.<\p>

Groenwold RH. Medische informatie de baas: hoe lees ik wetenschappelijk onderzoek? NTvG, Amsterdam; 2016.<\p>

Groenwold RH, Klungel OH. Unobserved confounding in propensity scores. In: Pan W, Bay H (Eds.). Propensity score analysis: fundamentals, developments and extensions (pp 296-319). Guilford publications, NY; 2016.<\p>

Groenwold RH. Gerandomiseerd onderzoek. In: Jongen PJH (ed). MS Lexicon deel 9: MS en klinisch wetenschappelijke methoden. Academic Pharmaceutical Productions; 2016.<\p>

Contributor to Grobbee DE, Hoes AW. Clinical Epidemiology, principles, methods, and applications for clinical research. 2nd ed. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett; 2014.<\p>

Articles in Dutch

Smits F, Torensma B, Groenwold R, Hall ML, van Burgel N, Jansen R, Rosendaal FR, Mook-Kanamori DO, Essers H, Numans ME.
De SARS-CoV-2-antigeentest is niet accuraat genoeg.
Huisarts Wet. 2021 May 27:1-5. Dutch. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12445-021-1159-2

Groenwold RHH, Brenkman H, Houwert RM.
Trials, observationeel onderzoek en de echte wereld.
Ned Tijdschr Geneesk 2020:D5514.

Groenwold RHH, Nab L, van Smeden M.
Groot, groter, grootst: big data in medisch onderzoek.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2018;162:D3108.

Groenwold RHH, van Smeden M, Dekkers OM.
Power, daar kun je geen genoeg van krijgen.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2018;162:D2163.

Dekkers OM, Groenwold RHH.
Significantie van P-waardes: onbegrepen en overschat.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2018;162:D2161.

Beks R, Houwert RM, Groenwold RH.
Observationeel onderzoek waardeloos? Niet voor de evaluatie van operatieve behandelingen.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2017;161(0):D1493NA.

Groenwold RH, Bossuyt PM.
Komt tijd, komt trial: over de timing van gerandomiseerde trials.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2017;161(0):D1204.

Groenwold RH.
Voor de kritische lezer: vragen bij gerandomiseerd onderzoek.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2015;159:A9018.

Knol MJ, Groenwold RH.
Effect modificatie en interactie.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2015;159:A8499.

Van den Berg IE, Boonacker CW, Dilaver G, Groenwold RH, Heersche A, Van den Heuvel KC, Van Keulen H, De Kroon AI, Scager K, Post JA.
Cijfers in de master meester: hoe consistent is de beoordeling van stages en scripties bij de Graduate School of Life Sciences (UU)?
Tijdschrift voor Hoger Onderwijs 2015;33(2):68-83.

Rietbergen C, Klugkist I, Groenwold RH.
Kwantitatieve synthese van kennis.
Stator 2014;15 (2):8-12NA.

Groenwold RH, AW Hoes, JP Vandenbroucke.
Patiënt-controleonderzoek: het belang van de juiste controlepersonen.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2013;157(11):A5697.

Groenwold RH.
3 vormen van bias; Vertekening van onderzoeksresultaten en hoe dat te voorkomen.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2013;157:A6497.

Groenwold RH.
Propensity score methoden in observationeel onderzoek.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2013;157(29):A6179.

Peters SAE, Groenwold RH, Bots ML.
De betekenis van intermediaire eindpunten in medisch onderzoek.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2013;157:A6400NA.

Kolkert JLP, Groenwold RH, Blauw JTM, Meerwaldt R, Zeebregts CJ, Geelkerken RH.
Analyse van de ketenorganisatie rond carotischirurgie bij patiënten met symptomatisch carotislijden.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2013;157(12):A5746.

Groenwold RH.
Verstoring in observationeel onderzoek: ‘confounding’.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2012;156:A4221.

Broekhuizen BDL, Groenwold RH, Verheij ThJM.
Bias en confounding: wat is waar?
Huisarts en Wetenschap 2012;8:335.

Siregar S, Groenwold RH, Versteegh MI, van Herwerden LA.
Prestatie-indicatoren voor ziekenhuizen.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2012;156(49):A5487 .

Rutten FH, Groenwold RH.
Een wonderlijk resultaat met candesartan.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2011;155(18):A3313.

Letters to the editor

Beeres FJP, van Veelen N, Houwert RM, Link BC, Heng M, Knobe M, Groenwold RHH, Babst R, van de Wall BJM.
Response to letter to the editor on: "Open plate fixation versus nailing for humeral shaft fractures: a meta-analysis and systematic review of randomised clinical trials and observational studies".
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2022 Mar 11. Read more .

Houwert RM, van der Wall BJM, Groenwold RHH, Kruyt MC.
A reaction to the editorial “Meta-Analyses and Systematic Reviews: JBJS Policy Revisited.” Read more .

Groenwold RHH, Dekkers OM.
Response to Letter on immunoassay measurement errors.
Eur J Endocrinol 2021 Feb;184(2):L3-L4.

van de Wall BJM, Ochen Y, Beeres FJP, Babst R, Link BC, Heng M, van der Velde D, Knobe M, Groenwold RHH, Houwert RM.
Response to Yin et al regarding: 'Conservative vs.
operative treatment for humeral shaft fractures: a meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized clinical trials and observational studies' J Shoulder Elbow Surg.

Penning de Vries BBL, Groenwold RHH, Luedtke A.
Selecting Optimal Subgroups for Treatment Using Many Covariates Epidemiology.

Groenwold RHH, van Smeden M.
Comparability of treatment arms does not prevent correlated trial results.
J Clin Epidemiol 2018 Aug 24.

Van Smeden M, van Calster B, Groenwold RHH.
Machine learning compared with pathologist assessment.
JAMA 2018 Apr 24;319(16):1725-1726.

Schmidt AF, Dudbridge F, Groenwold RH.
Comments on: 'Is the Risk Difference Really a More Heterogeneous Measure?'
Epidemiology. 2016 Jan 20.

Schmidt AF, Hoes AW, Groenwold RH.
Comments on 'the use of propensity scores and observational data to estimate randomized controlled trial generalizability bias'.
Statistics in Medicine 2013.

Groenwold RH.
Falsification end points in observational studies.
JAMA 2013;309(17):1769-70.

Rutten FH, Groenwold RH.
ß-Blocker use for patients with or at risk for coronary artery disease.
JAMA 2013;309(5):438-9.

Groenwold RH, Donders ART, Roes KCB, Harrell Jr FE, Moons KGM.
Re: Liublinksa and Rubin.
Re: Dealing with missing outcome data in randomized trials and observational studies Am J Epidemiol 2012;176:358-9.

Trappenburg JA, Schuurmans M, Groenwold RH.
Increased Mortality Following Telemonitoring in Frail Elderly Patients: Look Before You Leap!
Arch Intern Med 2012;172(20):1612.

Schuit E, Moons K, Groenwold RH, Kwee A, Mol B.
A clinical prediction model to assess the risk of operative delivery.
BJOG 2012;119(11):1418-9.

Boessen R, Knol MJ, Groenwold RH, Roes KC.
Validation and Predictive Performance Assessment of Clinical Trial Simulation Models.
Clin Pharmacol Ther 2011;89(4):487-8.

Groenwold RH.
RE: Emergency procedures for taking care of the victims of bomb attacks: logistical and medical aspects.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2006;150(37):2058.